Effects of Using the WhatsApp Application on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning and Autonomy





autonomy, blended learning, Iranian intermediate EFL learning, vocabulary learning, WhatsApp


The current study was planned to find out if the use of blended learning as a combination of face-to-face instruction and mobile-assisted language learning using WhatsApp contributed to the vocabulary learning and autonomy of Iranian EFL learners compared to the traditional method. To assess their English skills, PET was given to 80 homogenous intermediate learners at the beginning of the study. The study's intended participants were fifty EFL learners with scores that were within the intermediate competency level. Then, the participants were divided randomly to experimental and control groups to see how successful blended learning vs traditional education is at improving learners' vocabulary knowledge. One-way between-groups analysis of covariance was run. On post-test scores, the findings indicated a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Another one-way between-groups analysis of covariance was performed to assess the impact of two distinct blended learning vs traditional teaching treatments on EFL learners' autonomy. In post-test results, a significant difference between the control and experimental groups' performance was observed. This study provided insights into how technology may be applied to teach language components and skills.

Author Biographies

Kamran Janfeshan, Assistant professor, Department of English Language Teaching, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

Dr. Kamran Janfeshan has a Ph.D. in Teaching English as a Foreign Language from Pune University, India. After founding English Language Department at Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Iran in 1998, he established “The Developing English Language Center" at Kermanshah Innovation and Technology Park in 2010. His areas of interest are language teaching, research methodology, and integrating online applications into language teaching syllabuses. He has participated in numerous national and international conferences as a lecturer and published many papers and 3 books. He has currently a continuous collaboration with seven international journals as an editorial board and reviewer. At present, he is a full-time faculty member of the English Department, at Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Asmaa Nader Sharhan, English teacher at Wasit Educational Directorate, Kut, Iraq

Asmaa Nader Sharhan is an Iraqi teacher in the field of TEFL. She holds an MA in TEFL from Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran. Her main areas of interest are research and teaching methodology. She has taught English in Iraqi English Language institutes and schools at different levels since 2015.

Mohamad Mahdi Janfeshan, English Language Teaching Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Mohamad Mahdi Janfeshan holds a BA from English Language Teaching Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. He has published two ISI papers in England and India. His main areas of research are teaching methodology and blended learning.


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How to Cite

Janfeshan, K., Nader Sharhan, A., & Janfeshan, M. M. (2023). Effects of Using the WhatsApp Application on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning and Autonomy. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 24(3), 145–163. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v24i3.7185



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