MOOCs as a Research Agenda: Changes Over Time

  • Shunan Zhang Sungkyunkwan University
  • ShaoPeng Che Sungkyunkwan University
  • Dongyan Nan Sungkyunkwan University
  • Jang Hyun Kim Sungkyunkwan University
Keywords: MOOC research, CiteSpace, co-citation analysis, visualization

Abstract

MOOCs (massive open online courses) have attracted considerable attention from researchers. Fueled by constant change and developments in educational technology, the trends of MOOCs have varied greatly over the years. To detect and visualize the developments and changes in MOOC research, 4,652 articles published between 2009 and 2021 were retrieved from Web of Science and Scopus with the aid of CiteSpace. This study sought to explore the number of publications, co-citation network, cluster analysis, timeline analysis, burstness analysis, and dual-map overlays based on co-citation relationships. The first finding was that the number of publications on MOOCs had increased consistently, and grew especially quickly between 2013 and 2015. Second, the main topic of the top 10 co-cited studies revolved around the problem of learner continuance. Third, blended programs, task-technology fit, and comparative analysis have emerged as popular subjects. Fourth, the development of MOOC research has followed distinct phases, with 2009 to 2012 the starting phase, 2013 to 2015 the high growth phase, 2016 to 2018 the plateau phase, and 2019 to 2021 another peak phase. Lastly, both cluster analysis and dual-map overlays provided empirical evidence of cross-disciplinary research. Our findings provided an in-depth and dynamic understanding of the development and evolution of MOOC research and also proposed novel ideas for future studies.

References

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control (pp. 11–39). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2

Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. P. (2015). Understanding the MOOCs continuance: The role of openness and reputation. Computers & Education, 80, 28–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.006

Barak, M., Watted, A., & Haick, H. (2016). Motivation to learn in massive open online courses: Examining aspects of language and social engagement. Computers & Education, 94, 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.010

Bhattacharya, S., Singh, A., & Hossain, M. M. (2020). Health system strengthening through massive open online courses (MOOCs) during the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis from the available evidence. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 9. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_377_20

Brahimi, T., & Sarirete, A. (2015). Learning outside the classroom through MOOCs. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 604–609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.013

Breslow, L., Pritchard, D. E., DeBoer, J., Stump, G. S., Ho, A. D., & Seaton, D. T. (2013). Studying learning in the worldwide classroom: Research into edX’s first MOOC. Research & Practice in Assessment, 8, 13–25. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ej1062850

Bulfin, S., Pangrazio, L., & Selwyn, N. (2014). Making ‘MOOCs’: The construction of a new digital higher education within news media discourse. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(5), 290–305. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v15i5.1856

Callon, M., Courtial, J.-P., Turner, W. A., & Bauin, S. (1983). From translations to problematic networks: An introduction to co-word analysis. Social Science Information, 22(2), 191–235. https://doi.org/10.1177/053901883022002003

Che, S., Kamphuis, P., Zhang, S., Zhao, X., & Kim, J. H. (2022). A visualization analysis of crisis and risk communication research using Citespace. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5), 2923. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052923

Chen, C. (2017). Science mapping: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Data and Information Science, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/jdis-2017-0006

Chen, C., Hu, Z., Liu, S., & Tseng, H. (2012). Emerging trends in regenerative medicine: A scientometric analysis in CiteSpace. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 12(5), 593–608. https://doi.org/10.1517/14712598.2012.674507

Chen, C., & Leydesdorff, L. (2014). Patterns of connections and movements in dual‐map overlays: A new method of publication portfolio analysis. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 65(2), 334–351. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22968

Chen, X., & Liu, Y. (2020). Visualization analysis of high-speed railway research based on CiteSpace. Transport Policy, 85, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2019.10.004

Chongfu, Z., Kun, Q., Yawei, W., Yin, H., & Heng, Z. (2009). On experiment and analysis of MOOCS-based optical labels for optical packets switching. 2009 2nd IEEE International Conference on Broadband Network & Multimedia Technology. https://doi.org/10.1109/icbnmt.2009.5348516

Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2012(3). http://doi.org/10.5334/2012-18

Gmür, M. (2003). Co-citation analysis and the search for invisible colleges: A methodological evaluation. Scientometrics, 57(1), 27–57. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1023619503005

Guàrdia, L., Maina, M., & Sangrà, A. (2013). MOOC design principles: A pedagogical approach from the learner’s perspective. eLearning Papers (33). https://r-libre.teluq.ca/596/

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students’ and instructors’ use of massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivations and challenges. Educational Research Review, 12, 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2014.05.001

Hone, K. S., & El Said, G. R. (2016). Exploring the factors affecting MOOC retention: A survey study. Computers & Education, 98, 157–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.03.016

Hou, J., Yang, X., & Chen, C. (2018). Emerging trends and new developments in information science: A document co-citation analysis (2009–2016). Scientometrics, 115(2), 869–892. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-018-2695-9

Hoy, M. B. (2014). MOOCs 101: An introduction to massive open online courses. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 33(1), 85–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/02763869.2014.866490

Jordens, J. Z., & Zepke, N. (2009). A network approach to curriculum quality assessment. Quality in Higher Education, 15(3), 279–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/13538320903399125

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2016). Higher education and the digital revolution: About MOOCs, SPOCs, social media, and the Cookie Monster. Business Horizons, 59(4), 441-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2016.03.008

Kizilcec, R. F., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., & Maldonado, J. J. (2017). Self-regulated learning strategies predict learner behavior and goal attainment in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers & Education, 104, 18-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.10.001

Kizilcec, R. F., Piech, C., & Schneider, E. (2013). Deconstructing disengagement: analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge. https://doi.org/10.1145/2460296.2460330

Kolowich, S. (2013). The professors who make the MOOCs. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 18, 1-12. https://urlzs.com/ZQDPM

Kop, R. (2011). The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: Learning experiences during a massive open online course. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 12(3), 19–38. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v12i3.882

Kovanović, V., Gašević, D., Joksimović, S., Hatala, M., & Adesope, O. (2015). Analytics of communities of inquiry: Effects of learning technology use on cognitive presence in asynchronous online discussions. The Internet and Higher Education, 27, 74–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.06.002

Lee, Y., Kozar, K. A., & Larsen, K. R. (2003). The technology acceptance model: Past, present, and future. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1), 50. https://doi.org/10.17705/1cais.01250

Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 40–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.12.003

Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A., & Williams, S. A. (2013). MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008–2012. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 202–227. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v14i3.1455

Margaryan, A., Bianco, M., & Littlejohn, A. (2015). Instructional quality of massive open online courses (MOOCs). Computers & Education, 80, 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.005

McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & Cormier, D. (2010). The MOOC model for digital practice. https://urlzs.com/KMFcR

Meho, L. I., & Yang, K. (2006). A new era in citation and bibliometric analyses: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. arXiv preprint cs/0612132. https://doi.org/10.1002/meet.14504301185

Mongeon, P., & Paul-Hus, A. (2016). The journal coverage of Web of Science and Scopus: A comparative analysis. Scientometrics, 106(1), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1765-5

Pappano, L. (2012). The year of the MOOC. The New York Times, 2(12), 2012. https://www.lernspielwiese.com/cms/lib07/MN01909547/Centricity/Domain/272/The%20Year%20of%20the%20MOOC%20NY%20Times.pdf

Rowan, Y., & Hartnett, M. (2019). How have MOOCs been portrayed in the New Zealand public media? Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 23(2), 25–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2019.1656153

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Schuwer, R., Gil-Jaurena, I., Aydin, C. H., Costello, E., Dalsgaard, C., Brown, M., Jansen, D., & Teixeira, A. (2015). Opportunities and threats of the MOOC movement for higher education: The European perspective. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(6), 20–38. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i6.2153

Shi, Y., & Liu, X. (2019). Research on the literature of green building based on the Web of Science: A scientometric analysis in CiteSpace (2002–2018). Sustainability, 11(13), 3716. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133716

Sunar, A. S., White, S., Abdullah, N. A., & Davis, H. C. (2016). How learners’ interactions sustain engagement: A MOOC case study. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 10(4), 475–487. https://doi.org/10.1109/tlt.2016.2633268

Synnestvedt, M. B., Chen, C., & Holmes, J. H. (2005). CiteSpace II: Visualization and knowledge discovery in bibliographic databases. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560567/

Van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing bibliometric networks. In Y. Ding, R. Rousseau & d. Wolfram (Eds.), Measuring scholarly impact (pp. 285–320). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_13

Veletsianos, G., & Shepherdson, P. (2015). Who studies MOOCs? Interdisciplinarity in MOOC research and its changes over time. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i3.2202

Wahid, R., Ahmi, A., & Alam, A. (2020). Growth and collaboration in massive open online courses: A bibliometric analysis. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(4), 292–322. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v21i4.4693

Wu, B., & Chen, X. (2017). Continuance intention to use MOOCs: Integrating the technology acceptance model (TAM) and task technology fit (TTF) model. Computers in Human Behavior, 67, 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.10.028

Yang, D., Sinha, T., Adamson, D., & Rosé, C. P. (2013). Turn on, tune in, drop out: Anticipating student dropouts in massive open online courses. Proceedings of the 2013 NIPS Data-driven education workshop. https://doi.org/10.7765/9781526102720.00010

Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. https://www.cetis.org.uk/

Zhang, J. (2016). Can MOOCs be interesting to students? An experimental investigation from regulatory focus perspective. Computers & Education, 95, 340-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.02.003

Zheng, X., Zhang, J., & Yang, X. (2019). Visual analysis of MOOC research using Citespace from 2012 to 2018. 2019 International Joint Conference on Information, Media and Engineering (IJCIME). https://doi.org/10.1109/ijcime49369.2019.00033

Zhou, M. (2016). Chinese university students’ acceptance of MOOCs: A self-determination perspective. Computers & Education, 92, 194–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.10.012

Published
2022-11-01
How to Cite
Zhang, S., Che, S., Nan, D., & Kim, J. H. (2022). MOOCs as a Research Agenda: Changes Over Time. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 23(4), 193-210. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v23i4.6361
Section
Literature Reviews