What Motivates Students About Open Pedagogy? Motivational Regulation Through the Lens of Self-Determination Theory
Open pedagogy is growing in popularity as an instructional method to decentralize classroom power dynamics, engage students, and provide greater meaning to student work. To investigate the impact of open pedagogy on motivation, interviews were conducted with first-year college students at a four-year liberal arts college after completing a semester-long project based on this pedagogical approach. Student responses were assessed using self-determination theory as a theoretical framework, particularly in relation to the motivation regulatory styles displayed by research participants. Results indicate that students experienced various forms of extrinsic motivation during the project based on open pedagogy, with autonomous forms of regulation being more prevalent than controlled regulation. Interview data also suggest that agency plays a role in mediating the internalization of student motivation. Based on these findings, suggestions are provided to the design of assignments in general and open pedagogy specifically to enhance development of autonomous forms of motivation.
Al Abri, M., & Dabbagh, N. (2019). Testing the intervention of OER renewable assignments in a college course. Open Praxis, 11(2), 195–209. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.2.916
Alessi, E., Sapiro, B., Kahn, S., & Craig, S. (2017). The first-year university experience for sexual minority students: A grounded theory exploration. Journal of LGBT Youth, 14(1), 71–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361653.2016.1256013
Allan, B. A., Duffy, R. D., & Collisson, B. (2018). Helping others increases meaningful work: Evidence from three experiments. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 65(2), 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000228
Assor, A., Vansteenkiste, M., & Kaplan, A. (2009). Identified versus introjected approach and introjected avoidance motivations in school and in sports: The limited benefits of self-worth strivings. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 482–497. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014236
Bali, M., Cronin, C., & Jhangiani, R. (2020). Framing open educational practices from a social justice perspective. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.5334/jime.565
Baran, E., & AlZoubi, D. (2020). Affordances, challenges, and impact of open pedagogy: Examining students’ voices. Distance Education, 41(2), 230–244. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1757409
Burton, K., Lydon, J., D’Alessandro, D., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on wellbeing and performance: Prospective, experimental, and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 750–762. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1680
Charmaz, K. (2012). The power and potential of grounded theory. Medical Sociology Online, 6(3), 2–15. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1062.8596&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Couros, A., & Hildebrandt, K. (2016). Designing for open and social learning. In G. Veletsianos (Ed.), Emergence and innovation in digital learning: Foundations and applications (pp. 143–162). Athabasca University Press.
Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Sage.
Cronin, C., & MacLaren, L. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of theoretical and empirical literature in open educational practices. Open Praxis, 2, 127. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.10.2.825
Deci, E., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Plenum.
Deci, E., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deci, E., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(1), 14–23. https://doi.org/10.1037/0708-5522.214.171.124
Dermody, R. (2019). Open pedagogy for teaching structures. In C. Brause, P. L. Clouston, & N. Darling (Eds.), Building technology educator’s society: 2019 (art. 3). University of Massachusetts. https://doi.org/10.7275/s9xd-h436
DeRosa, R., & Jhangiani, R. (n.d.). Open pedagogy. http://openpedagogy.org/open-pedagogy/
DeRosa, R., & Robison, S. (2017). From OER to open pedagogy: Harnessing the power of open. In R. S. Jhangiani & and R. Biswas-Diener (Eds.), Open: The philosophy and practices that are revolutionizing education and science (pp. 115–124). Ubiquity Press. https://doi.org/10.5334/bbc.i
Dewey, J. (2018, April 1). First year experience programs. 1–4. Salem Press.
Farzan, R., & Kraut, R. (2013). Wikipedia classroom experiment: Bidirectional benefits of students’ engagement in online production communities. CHI ’13: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 783–792). ACM Press. https://doi.org/doi:10.1145/2470654.2470765
Froiland, J., Oros, E., Smith, L., & Hirchert, T. (2012). Intrinsic motivation to learn: The nexus between psychological health and academic success. Contemporary School Psychology, 16, 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03340978
Gagne, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orientation in the engagement of prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 199–223. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025007614869
Hanover Research. (2014). Strategies for improving student retention. https://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/strategies-for-improving-student-retention.pdf
Hegarty, B. (2015, July/August). Attributes of open pedagogy: A model for using open educational resources. Educational Technology, 3–14. https://www.scribd.com/doc/276569994/Attributes-of-Open-Pedagogy-A-Model-for-Using-Open-Educational-Resources
Henderlong Corpus, J., Robinson, A., and Wormington, S. (2020). Trajectories of motivation and their academic correlates over the first year of college. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 63, 101907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101907
Hess, A. (2020, June 19). 7 ways the coronavirus pandemic could change college this fall and forever. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/06/19/7-ways-coronavirus-pandemic-may-change-college-this-fall-and-forever.html
Hilton, J., III, Wiley, D., Chaffee, R., Darrow, J., Guilmett, J., Harper, S., & Hilton, B. (2019). Student perceptions of open pedagogy: An exploratory study. Open Praxis, 11(3), 275–288. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.3.973
Howard, J., Bureau, J., Guay, F., Chong, J., & Ryan, R. (2020). Student motivation and associated outcomes: A meta-analysis from self-determination theory [Unpublished manuscript]. Perspectives on Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691620966789
Inamorato dos Santos, A., Punie, Y., Castaño-Muñoz, J. (2016). EUR 27938—Opening up education: A support framework for higher education institutions. JRC Science for Policy Report. https://doi.org/10.2791/293408
Jenkins, J., Sánchez, L., Schraedley, M., Hannans, J., Navick, N., & Young, J. (2020). Textbook broke: Textbook affordability as a social justice issue. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), 3. http://doi.org/10.5334/jime.549
Jhangiani, R. (2017). Ditching the “disposable assignment” in favor of open pedagogy. E-xcellence in Teaching Blog. http://teachpsych.org/E-xcellence-in-Teaching-Blog/4583103
Khandkar, S. (n.d.). Open coding. http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~saul/wiki/uploads/CPSC681/open-coding.pdf
Lane, A. (2009). The impact of openness on bridging educational digital divides. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v10i5.637
Lightweis, S. (2014). The challenges, persistence, and success of white, working-class, first-generation college students. College Student Journal, 48(3), 461–467. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1045347
Marsh, J. (2018, 27 April). What open education taught me. Open Pedagogy Notebook. http://openpedagogy.org/program-level/what-open-education-taught-me/
Mudhovozi, P. (2012). Social and academic adjustment of first-year university students. Journal of Social Sciences, 33(2), 251–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2012.11893103
Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318
Pillay, A., & Ngcobo, H. (2010). Sources of stress and support among rural-based first-year university students: An exploratory study. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(3), 234–240. https://doi.org/10.1177/008124631004000302
Pintrich, P. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667–686. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1997
Plant, R., & Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and the effects of self-consciousness, self-awareness, and ego-involvement: An investigation of internally controlling styles. Journal of Personality, 53, 435–449. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1985.tb00375.x
Polikoff, M., Silver, D., & Korn, S. (2020, August 4). What’s the likely impact of COVID-19 on higher ed? Inside Higher Education. https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2020/08/04/analysis-data-national-survey-impact-pandemic-higher-ed-opinion
Pulliam, N., & Gonzalez, C. (2018). Success or fraud? Exploring the impacts of the impostor phenomenon among high achieving racial/ethnic minority and first-generation college students. Journal of Access, Retention, & Inclusion in Higher Education, 33–45. https://www.wcupa.edu/universityCollege/asp/documents/ADP%20Journal-2018-First%20Edition-corrected.pdf#page=39
Reeve, J. (2006). Teachers as facilitators: What autonomy-supportive teachers do and why their students benefit. Elementary School Journal, 106, 225–236. https://doi.org/10.1086/501484
Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 149–172). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-2018-7_7
Reynolds, A., & Weigand, M. (2010). The relationships among academic attitudes, psychological attitudes, and the first-semester academic achievement of first-year college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(2), 175–195. https://doi.org/10.2202/1949-6605.6004
Robbins, S., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A. (2004). Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 261–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.2.261
Roberts, J., & Styron, R. (2010). Student satisfaction and persistence: Factors vital to student retention. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1–18. https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/09321.pdf
Ryan, R. (1982). Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450–461. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101860
Seifert, T. (2004). Understanding student motivation. Educational Research, 46(2), 137–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188042000222421
Seraphin, S., Grizzell, J., Kerr-German, A., Perkins, M., Grzanka, P., & Hardin, E. (2019). A conceptual framework for non-disposable assignments: Inspiring implementation, innovation, and research. Psychology Learning and Teaching, 18(1), 84–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1475725718811711
Sheldon, K., & Kasser, T. (2001). Getting older, getting better: Personal strivings and psychological maturity across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 37, 491–501. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2061
Sheu, F. (2020). Learner perceptions of open pedagogy in a psychology course: A case study on instructional design with open educational resources. In M. Y. Zhou (Ed.), Open educational resources (OER) pedagogy and practice (pp. 67–90). IGI Global.
Skjott Linneberg, M., & Korsgaard, S. (2019). Coding qualitative data: A synthesis guiding the novice. Qualitative Research Journal, 19(3), 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1108/QRJ-12-2018-0012
Stommel, J. (2014, November 17). Critical digital pedagogy: A definition. Hybrid Pedagogy. https://hybridpedagogy.org/critical-digital-pedagogy-definition/
Stommel, J. (2015, May 28). Open door classroom [SlideShare slides]. https://www.slideshare.net/jessestommel/open-door-classroom
Tillinghast, B. (2020). Developing an open educational resource and exploring OER-enabled pedagogy in higher education. IAFOR Journal of Education: Technology in Education, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.22492/ije.8.2.09
Vallerand, R., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). lntrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60, 599–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x
Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Koestner, R. (2008). Reflections on self-determination theory. Canadian Psychology, 49, 257–262. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00922.x
Vansteenkiste, M., Aelterman, N., De Muynck, G.-J., Haerens, L., Patall, E., & Reeve, J. (2018). Fostering personal meaning and self-relevance: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization. Journal of Experimental Education, 86, 30–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2017.1381067
Wang, C., Zhang, Y., Moss, J. D., Bonem, E. M., & Levesque-Bristol, C. (2020). Multilevel factors affecting college students’ perceived knowledge transferability: From the perspective of self-determination theory. Research in Higher Education, 61, 1002–1026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-020-09592-x
Wiley, D. (n.d.). Defining the “open” in open content and open educational resources. Open Content. http://opencontent.org/definition/
Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is open pedagogy? Open Content Blog. https://opencontent.org/blog/archives/2975
Wiley, D., & Hilton, J. (2018). Defining OER-enabled pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 19(4), 133–147. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v19i4.3601
Wiley, D., Webb, A., Weston, S., & Tonks, D. (2017). A preliminary exploration of the relationships between student-created OER, sustainability, and students’ success. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v18i4.3022
Woolfolk, A. (2019). Educational psychology (14th ed). Pearson.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. The copyright of all content published in IRRODL is retained by the authors.
This copyright agreement and use license ensures, among other things, that an article will be as widely distributed as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific and/or scholarly archive.
You are free to
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms below:
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.