Mobile Teacher Professional Development (MTPD): Delving into English Teachers’ Beliefs in Indonesia
In recent years, mobile phones have been used for teacher professional development (TPD). However, the potential use of smartphones, a current-generation of mobile phones, to develop teachers’ pedagogical, social, personal, and professional competences remains underexplored. This mixed methods study, examining the potential use of smartphones for TPD by delving into English teachers’ beliefs, employed a sequential explanatory approach. A quantitative survey was completed by 81 participants, followed by qualitative interviews with 8 selected participants. All the respondents were English teachers in elementary, junior, and senior high schools in 11 provinces in Indonesia. The survey was tested for validity and reliability, and analysed using the descriptive statistics method, while the semi-structured interview was analysed using the content analysis method. Almost all teachers had very favourable and favourable beliefs about the use of smartphones for TPD, perceiving that a smartphone could facilitate the enhancement of their pedagogical knowledge, communication skills, positive characters and English proficiency. Very few teachers had unfavourable beliefs, but among those who did, they believed traditional face-to-face TPD was more beneficial and that smartphones would only lead to addiction. This study recommends that smartphones be optimally applied by English teachers for TPD activities and that governments facilitate such implementation by constructing smartphone TPD models and applications.
Ahonen, E., Pyhältö, K., Pietarinen, J., & Soini, T. (2014). Teachers’ professional beliefs about their roles and the pupils’ roles in the school. Teacher Development, 18(2), 177–197. doi: 10.1080/13664530.2014.900818
Akay, C. (2017). Turkish high school students ’ English demotivation and their seeking for remotivation : A mixed method research. English Language Teaching, 10(8), 107–122. doi: 10.5539/elt.v10n8p107
Aubusson, P., Schuck, S., & Burden, K. (2009). Mobile learning for teacher professional learning: Benefits, obstacles and issues. Research in Learning Technology, 17(3), 233–247. doi: 10.3402/rlt.v17i3.10879
Borg, M. (2001). Key concepts in ELT: Teachers’ beliefs. ELT Journal, 55(2), 186–188. doi: 10.1093/elt/55.2.186
Borg, S. (2015). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London & New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
Burns, M. (2015, March). Not just for students: Mobile teacher professional development. Learn Magazine. Retrieved from https://elearnmag.acm.org/archive.cfm?aid=2747006
Cha, S.-S, & Seo, B. -K. (2018). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea : Prevalence, social networking service, and game use. Health Psychology Open, 5(1), 1–15. doi: 10.1177/2055102918755046
Dean, B. A., Herden-Thew, K., Delahunty, J., & Thomas, L. (2019). Flexible spaces and sustainable opportunities: Designing online professional learning for sessional teachers. In Y. (Aimee) Zhang & D. Cristol (Eds.), Handbook of mobile teaching and learning (2nd ed., pp. 49–63). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-2766-7
Farias, R. S. de, & Araujo, A. M. P. de (2018). Teacher professional development: Field of knowledge rise. Creative Education, 9(5), 658–674. doi: 10.4236/ce.2018.95048
Gore, J., Lloyd, A., Smith, M., Bowe, J., Ellis, H., & Lubans, D. (2017). Effects of professional development on the quality of teaching : Results from a randomised controlled trial of Quality Teaching Rounds. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68, 99–113. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.08.007
Hsu, Y., & Ching, Y. (2012). Mobile microblogging: Using Twitter and mobile devices in an online course to promote learning in authentic contexts. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 211–227. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v13i4.1222
Ifeanyi, I. P., & Chukwuere, J. E. (2018). The impact of using smartphones on the academic performance of undergraduate students. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 10(3), 290–308. doi: 10.34105/j.kmel.2018.10.017
Irmawati, D. K., Widiati, U., & Cahyono, B. Y. (2017). How do Indonesian professional English teachers develop their pedagogical competence in teaching implementation? Arab World English Journal, 8(2), 293–307. doi: 10.24093/awej/vol8no2.21
Kennedy, M. M. (2016). How does professional development improve teaching ? Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 945-980. doi: 10.3102/0034654315626800
Kidd, W., & Murray, J. (2013). Using emerging technologies to develop professional learning. Professional Development in Education, 39(2), 165–167. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2013.771087
Lundquist, A. R., Lefebvre, E. J., & Garramone, S. J. (2014). Smartphones: Fulfilling the need for immediacy in everyday life, but at what cost? International Journal of Hummanities and Social Science, 4(2), 80–89. Retrieved from http://www.ijhssnet.com/view.php?u=https://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_2_Special_Issue_January_2014/6.pdf
Makovec, D. (2018). The teacher’s role and professional development. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 6(2), 33–45. doi: 10.5937/ijcrsee1802033M
Martha, S. (2017). The analysis of geospatial information for validating some numbers of islands in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 49(2), 204–211. doi: 10.22146/ijg.12792
Mokoena, S. P. (2012). Smartphones and regular cellular phones: Assessing their impact on students’ education at the University of Zululand (Master’s thesis, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa). 2012. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10530/1049
Novozhenina, A., & López Pinzón, M. M. (2018). Impact of a professional development program on EFL teachers’ performance, HOW Journa,l 25(2), 113–128. doi: 10.19183/how.25.2.406
Olken, B. A. (2019). Designing anti-poverty programs in emerging economies in the 21st century: Lessons from Indonesia for the world. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 55(3), 319–339. doi: 10.1080/00074918.2019.1690411
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332. doi: 10.3102/00346543062003307
Richards, J. C., & Farrell, T. S. C. (2005). Professional development for language teachers: Strategies for teacher learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Russell, M., Carey, R., Kleiman, G., & Venable, J. D. (2009). Face-to-face and online professional development for mathematics teachers: A comparative study. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(2), 71–87. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/104029/
Saiful, J. A. (2018). EFL prospective teacher educators’ beliefs towards the use of WhatsApp in English learning and teaching. Parole: Journal of Linguistics and Education, 8(2), 66–71. doi: 10.14710/parole.v8i2.66-71
Saiful, J. A., & Widodo, P. (2019). Indonesian EFL prospective teachers’ intention to perform (ITP) in the English language: A preliminary study. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 25(1), 100–114. doi: 10.17576/3L-2019-2501-08
Sample McMeeking, L. B. S., Orsi, R., & Cobb, R. B. (2012). Effects of a teacher professional development program on the mathematics achievement of middle school students. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 43(2), 159–181. doi: 10.5951/jresematheduc.43.2.0159
Sarwar, M., & Soomro, T. R. (2013). Impact of Smartphone’s on Society. European Journal of Scientific Research, 98(2), 216–226. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236669025_Impact_of_Smartphone%27s_on_Society
Schon, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shaheen, R., Walsh, C., Power, T., & Burton, S. (2013, April). Assessing the impact of large-scale teacher professional development (TPD ) in Bangladesh: English in Action (EIA). Paper presented at the 2013 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. Retrieved from https://www.aera.net/Publications/Online-Paper-Repository
Subekti, A. S. (2019). A study of introduction to college English teachers’ beliefs in their teaching roles. International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching, 3(1), 21–40. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/230011101.pdf
Tahir, A. (2017). Upaya diri menjadi guru professional [Self-effort to be a professional teacher]. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Too, W. K., & Saimima, E. J. (2019). Teacher belief and practice in a school-based English language classroom in eastern Indonesia. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 4(1), 211–231. doi: 10.24200/jonus.vol4iss1pp211-231
Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2014). You can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him learn: Smartphone use in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 713–724. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12176
Utami, I. G. A. L. P., & Prestridge, S. (2018). How English teachers learn in Indonesia: Tension between Policy-driven and Self-driven professional development. TEFLIN Journal, 29(2), 245–265. http://www.journal.teflin.org/index.php/journal/article/view/591/302
Valenčič Zuljan, M. (2001). Modeli in načela učiteljevega profesionalnega razvoja [Models and principles of the teacher’s professional development]. Sodobna Pedagogika, 52(2), 122–141.
Walsh, C. S., Shrestha, P., & Hedges, C. (2013). Mobile phones for professional development and English teaching in Bangladesh. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 13(2), 183–200. doi: 10.1504/IJIL.2013.052287
Wenyuan, G. (2017). Using smart phone to facilitate vocabulary mobile learning and teaching in Chinese college. International Journal of Arts and Commerce, 6(4), 36–41. Retrieved from https://ijac.org.uk/images/frontImages/gallery/Vol._6_No._4/3._36-41.pdf
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. The copyright of all content published in IRRODL is retained by the authors.
This copyright agreement and use license ensures, among other things, that an article will be as widely distributed as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific and/or scholarly archive.
You are free to
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms below:
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.