Educational Technology Undergraduates’ Performance in a Distance Learning Course Using Three Courseware Formats




courseware, distance learning, mixed media, performance, educational technology


Most educators’ inability to provide learning contents that suit different learning styles has caused a lot of problems in terms of performance. Thus, to cater to students’ preferences in terms of access to learning contents, the distance learning regulatory body in Nigeria emphasized that course materials should be developed in mixed-media formats. This study was carried out to compare the effects of printed, video, and Moodle-based courseware on educational technology students’ achievement, retention, and satisfaction in a distance learning course. A quasi-experimental design was employed for the study involving 108 participants from three experimental groups. The learning content and instruments, subjected to validation and reliability tests, where values of 0.78 and 0.86 were obtained using the Pearson product moment correlation and Cronbach’s alpha for achievement and satisfaction inventory, respectively, were administered within a four-week period. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings indicated that the printed, video, and Moodle-based courseware formats improved students’ achievement with mean gain scores of 47.92, 40.89, and 43.03, respectively. A significant difference was observed in the achievement (F (2,104) = 8.67, p < 0.05), retention (F (2,104) = 29.406, p < 0.05), and satisfaction scores (F (2,104) = 5.662, p < 0.05) of the three groups. Open and distance learning administrators in Nigeria are recommended to produce and deploy printed, video, and Moodle-based formats of courseware to meet different students’ learning preferences.

Author Biographies

Oluwole Caleb Falode, Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

Dr. O.C. Falode is a senior lecturer in the Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna Nigeria. He is an experienced instructional designer and courseware development expert with many publications at both local and international levels. 

Ibrahim Abba Mohammed, Department of Science Education, Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria

Mohammed Ibrahim Abba is a lecturer in the Department of Science Education, Federal University Kashere in Gombe State Nigeria. He is currently a postgraduate student of Educational Technology at Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria. He has many publication as well as being to many conferences.


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How to Cite

Falode, O. C., & Mohammed, I. A. (2023). Educational Technology Undergraduates’ Performance in a Distance Learning Course Using Three Courseware Formats. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 24(4), 1–19.



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