Effects of Online Self-Regulated Learning on Learning Ineffectiveness in the Context of COVID-19


  • Wei He School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, China
  • Li Zhao School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, China
  • Yu-Sheng Su Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan




online learning, self-regulated learning, learning ineffectiveness, COVID-19


Within the COVID-19 pandemic and the new normal period, online learning has become one of the main options for learning. Previous studies on self-regulated learning have shown that it was a better predictor of online learning effectiveness. However, this discussion has not been extended to the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. To address this gap, this study aims to explore the relationship between the three stages of self-regulated learning (SRL) and learning ineffectiveness (LI). Data of 370 high school students were collected during the period of COVID-19. Structural equation modeling was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis on the data. Findings show that the preparatory stage was positively related to the stages of performance and appraisal, and the performance stage was positively related to the appraisal stage; on the other hand, the stages of performance and appraisal were negatively related to learning ineffectiveness. In addition, the preparatory stage had no direct relation to learning ineffectiveness, but the preparatory stage was correlated with learning ineffectiveness, mediated by the stages of performance and appraisal. These results suggest that better performance in the three stages of self-regulated learning decrease learners’ perceived online learning ineffectiveness. This understanding can have implications for global education.


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How to Cite

He, W., Zhao, L., & Su, Y.-S. (2022). Effects of Online Self-Regulated Learning on Learning Ineffectiveness in the Context of COVID-19. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 23(2), 25–43. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v23i2.5775



Research Articles