Design and Validation of the Virtual Classroom Management Questionnaire A Case Study: Iran

  • Mohsen Keshavarz Department of Medical Sciences Education Development, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran. Department of e-Learning, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.
  • Zohrehsadat Mirmoghtadaie Assistant Professor, Department of e-Learning, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(SBMU), Tehran, Iran.
  • Somayyeh Nayyeri Department of Operating Room, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran
Keywords: classroom environment, classroom management, questionnaire, virtual classroom management

Abstract

Effective classroom management methods are well known, but effective ways of managing classes of beginner teachers remain elusive. Classroom management refers to the wide range of skills and techniques that teachers use to ensure that classes are conducted without destructive student behavior. The present study is applied nonexperimental research. The purpose of this study was to design a tool to measure the effective management of the virtual classroom from the perspective of professors and students in e-learning and evaluate its validity and reliability. The research sample was taken randomly from all universities that make use of e-learning in Tehran, Iran, during the 2019–2020 semesters. The results show that the professional development of online classroom management is necessary for preparing teachers to teach in digital environments. The results of this research in the form of a validated questionnaire can be considered as an indicator for educators and students working in online environments, and this tool can be used for effective teaching and learning in the digital age.

Author Biographies

Mohsen Keshavarz, Department of Medical Sciences Education Development, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran. Department of e-Learning, School of Paramedical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran.

Dr. Mohsen Keshavarz has a Ph.D. in virtual education planning. He is a faculty member and the Director of the Virtual Education Center of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences now. His research interests include online and virtual learning, blended learning, telemedicine, new educational technologies, e-health, and multiple literacies in online environments. He has published several articles on virtual education in international Journals. He is an energetic advocate of distance learning in his home country of Iran, having translated Tony Bates’s book Teaching in a Digital Age to Persian in addition to several other projects, some with international collaborators. He has recently been introduced by Leaders & Legends of Online Learning as an international figure in the field of online learning.

Zohrehsadat Mirmoghtadaie, Assistant Professor, Department of e-Learning, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences(SBMU), Tehran, Iran.

Dr. Zohrehsadat Mirmoghtadaie is an assistant professor of e-learning in medical education at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. She gained her Ph.D. in medical education in 2016. Her academic interest areas are open and blended Learning, medical education futures, e-learning, and content production in medical education. She is head of the e-learning department and has ample experience in content production.

Somayyeh Nayyeri, Department of Operating Room, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran

Somayyeh Nayyeri is a faculty member and head of the department of operating room at Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences. She has a master's degree in medical education. Her research interest areas are teaching and learning, medical education, and e-learning.

References

Acar, İ. K., & Yıldız, S. M. (2016). Professional development of elementary school teachers through online peer collaboration: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 7(4), 422–439. https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.79480

Adedigba, O., & Sulaiman, F. R. (2020). Influence of teachers’ classroom management style on pupils’ motivation for learning and academic achievement in Kwara State. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 6(2), 471–480. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.6.2.471

Akman, Y. (2020). The role of classroom management on confidence in teachers and educational stress. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 335–345. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.687109

Babadjanova, N. (2020). Effective classroom management techniques for curriculum of 21st century. Science and Education, 1(7), 281–285. https://openscience.uz/index.php/sciedu/article/view/518

Baker, C., Gentry, J., & Larmer, W. (2016). A model for online support in classroom management: Perceptions of beginning teachers. Connecting Education, Practice and Research, 6(1), 22–37. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1104337

Bakia, M., Shear, M., Toyama, Y., & Lasseter, A. (2012). Understanding the implications of online learning for educational productivity. US Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. https://tech.ed.gov/files/2013/10/implications-online-learning.pdf

Berger, J. L., & Girardet, C. (2020). Vocational teachers’ classroom management style: The role of motivation to teach and sense of responsibility. European Journal of Teacher Education, 44(22), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1764930

Burkman, A. (2012). Preparing novice teachers for success in elementary classrooms through professional development. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 78(3), 23–33. http://www.deltakappagamma.org/NH/Spring%202012_Professional%20Development_2-27-12.pdf#page=24

Curzon, L.B. (2003). Teaching in further education: An outline of principles and practice. A&C Black Press.

Dash, S., de Kramer, R. M., O’Dwyer, L. M., Masters, J., & Russell, M. (2012). Impact of online professional development on teacher quality and student achievement in fifth-grade mathematics. Journal of Research on for Technology in Education, 45(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2012.10782595

Emmer, E. T., & Sabornie, E. J. (2015). Introduction to the second edition. In E. T. Emmer & E. J. Sabornie (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management (2nd ed., pp. 3–12). Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Handbook-of-Classroom-Management/Emmer-Sabornie/p/book/9780415660334

Ghiasvandian, S., Varaei, S., Yadeghari, M. A., Pourrahimi, A., & Aghajanloo, A. (2017). Classroom management for the instruction of unmotivated students. Journal of Medical Education and Development, 12(1–2), 13–26. http://jmed.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-769-en.html

Glossary of Education Reform. (2018). https://www.edglossary.org/

Gold, B., Pfirrmann, C., & Holodynski, M. (2021). Promoting a professional vision of classroom management through different analytic perspectives in video-based learning environments. Journal of Teacher Education, 72(4), 431–447. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487120963681

Greenberg, J., Putnam, H., & Walsh, K. (2014). Training our future teachers: Classroom management. National Council on Teacher Quality. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED556312

Hapsari, E. W. (2020). Error analysis in writing descriptive text of pre-service English teachers at Kutai Kartanegara University. Intelegensia: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran, 5(1).

Hardman, E. L., & Smith, S. W. (2003). Analysis of classroom discipline-related content in elementary education journals. Behavioral Disorders, 28(2),173-86. https://eric.ed.gov/?q=classroom+discipline&ff1=subTeacher+Role&id=EJ673113

Herbert, S., Campbell, C., & Loong, E. (2016). Online professional learning for rural teachers of mathematics and science. Australasian Journal of Education Technology, 32(2), 99–114. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2159

Jones, V. F., & Jones, L.S. (2012). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (10th ed.). Pearson.

Kayıkçı, K. (2009). The effect of classroom management skills of elementary school teachers on undesirable discipline behavior of students. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1215–1225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.218

Keshavarz, M., & Ghoneim, A. (2021). Preparing educators to teach in a digital age. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 22(1), 221–242. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v22i1.4910

Konti, F. (2011). Teachers and students perceptions towards teachers classroom management applications in primary schools. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 4093–4097. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.503

Langdon, C. A. (1997). The fourth Phi Delta Kappa poll of teachers’ attitudes toward schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 78(3), 212–220. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ555409

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x

Lettink, M. (2020). Development and validation of a questionnaire on classroom management of Dutch secondary education teachers [Master’s thesis, University of Twente]. http://purl.utwente.nl/essays/85419

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. F. (2014). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model (7th ed.). Pearson. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED577251

Malik, S., Azeem, M. F., & Paracha, A. T. (2020). Veiled and unveiled university faculty: A comparison on their needs for effective classroom management in relevance with the Islamic perspective. Journal of Islamic Business and Management, 10(1), 260. https://doi.org/10.26501/jibm/2020.1001-016

Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2017). Effective teaching: Evidence and practice (3rd ed.). Sage Publications.

Özcan, G., & Gülözer, K. (2017). Sınıf yönetimi ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi [Development of class management scale]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 25(3), 1133-1146. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/kefdergi/issue/29417/320749#article_cite

Stewart, D. (2008). Classroom management in the online environment. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 371–374. https://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no3/stewart_0908.pdf

Stobaugh, R., & Houchens, G. (2014). Preparing for success. Principal Leadership, 14(7), 36–40.

Tulley, M., & Chiu, L. H. (1995). Student teachers and classroom discipline. Journal of Educational Research, 88(3), 164–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1995.9941295

Vu, P., Cao, V., Vu, L., & Cepero, J. (2014). Factors driving learner success in online professional development. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(3), 121–139. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v15i3.1714

Waltz, C. F., Strickland, O., & Lenz, E. R. (2010). Measurement in nursing and health research. Springer. https://dl.uswr.ac.ir/bitstream/Hannan/138859/1/9780826105080.pdf

Wilson, B. G. (2004). Designing e-learning environments for flexible activity and instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 52(4), 77–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504720

Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2018). How to be an effective teacher: The first days of school (5th ed.). Harry K. Wong Publications. https://www.effectiveteaching.com/store/products/books/the-first-days-of-school-5th-edition-ebook

Yılmaz, H., & Çavaş, P. H. (2008). The effect of the teaching practice on pre-service elementary teacher’s science teaching efficacy and classroom management beliefs. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 4(1), 45–54. https://doi.org/10.12973/ejmste/75305

Published
2022-05-02
How to Cite
Keshavarz, M., Mirmoghtadaie, Z., & Nayyeri, S. (2022). Design and Validation of the Virtual Classroom Management Questionnaire A Case Study: Iran. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 23(2), 120-135. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v23i2.5774
Section
Research Articles