Comparative Analysis of Operational Structures in Single- and Dual-Mode Distance Learning Institutions in Nigeria
This study examined the similarities and differences in the processes and facilities for distance education at National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), a single-mode distance learning institution, and Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, a dual-mode distance learning institution. The study adopted a case study research design, with a population of administrators/facilitators and distance learning students at both NOUN and OAU. The sample for the study consisted of 38 key informants (30 administrators/facilitators and 8 students) selected using a purposive sampling technique. All the administrators/facilitators responded to a key informant questionnaire; 8 of the administrators/facilitators and all 8 students were also interviewed. The 16 interviewees were selected based on gender, institution, educational role, and mode of distance learning. The collected data were analysed using tabular juxtaposition and phenomenological analysis techniques. Results showed that similarities in the operational structures at NOUN and OAU included the use of blended learning approaches. Differences in operations included compulsory tutorial attendance at OAU and the deployment of part-time and quasi part-time facilitators at NOUN and OAU, respectively. The study recommended an increase in the use of information and communications technology (ICT).
Abdel-Maksoud, N. F. (2018). When virtual becomes better than real: Investigating the impact of a networking simulation on learning and motivation. International Journal of Education and Practice, 6(4), 253-270. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=Ej1210050
Abdulsalam, N., Condrasky, M., Bridges, W., & Havice, P. (2017). The promise of andragogy and experimental learning to improve teaching of nutrition concepts to culinary arts students. Journal of Food Science Education, 16(2), 54–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4329.12107
Adanir, G. A., Ismailova, R., Omuraliev, A., & Muhametjanova, G. (2020). Learners’ perception of online exams: A comparative study in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 21(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v21i3.4679
Adebisi, T. A. (2013). Attaining sustainable livelihood and democracy through vocational training and livelihood diversification. Journal of Nigerian National Council for Adult Education, 19(1), 63–79. University Press PLC.
Adebisi, T. A. (2018). Training in the production of clan-bond trades in southwestern Nigeria: The non-formal and informal learning approaches. In A. Breedveld & J. Jansen (Eds.), Education for life in Africa (pp. 266–285). African Studies Centre.
Adeleke, I., & Adesina, O. (2018). An empirical comparison of the academic performance of students in the distance learning and traditional classroom environment. Social Science Asia, 4(1), 26–41. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325300466
Agyeman, O. T. (2007). Survey of ICT and education in Africa: Nigeria country report. ICT for education in Nigeria. infoDev. https://www.infodev.org/infodev-files/resource/InfodevDocuments_422.pdf
Ahn, J., & McEachin, A. (2017). Student enrollment patterns and achievement in Ohio’s online charter schools. Educational Researcher, 46(1), 44–57. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X17692999
Ajadi, T. O., Salawu, I. O., & Adeoye, F. A. (2008). E-learning and distance education in Nigeria. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4), 61–70. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102939.pdf
Akande, O. J., & Sofowora, O. A. (2011). Globalization information and communication technologies (ICTs) and open/distance learning in Nigeria: Trends, issues and solution. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 12(3), 66–77. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ965052
Akinwale, A., & Onwuameze, D. (March 5, 2020). Nigeria overtakes South Africa as Africa’s largest economy. This Day. https://allafrica.com/stories/202003050216.html
Akter, N., & Ali, A. (2016). Analysis of assignments’ assessment for distance learners in single vs dual mode institutions. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(2), 15–35. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1210304.pdf
Al-Alawneh, M. K. (2013). Examining e-learning barriers as perceived by faculty members of engineering colleges in the Jordanian universities. International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 5(4), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJVTE2013.0121
Anderle, J. S. (2018). Procedural learning: A comparison of skills acquisition between an online environment and traditional classroom training (Order No. 10807895) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wyoming]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Anderson, T., & Cuttler, C. (2020). Open to open? An exploration of textbook preferences and strategies to offset textbook costs for online versus on-campus students. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(1), 40–60. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v20i5.4141
Anderson, B., & Simpson, M. (2012). History and heritage in distance education. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 16(2), 1-10. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080085.pdf
Baiyewu, L. (2017, June 6). NOUN graduates now eligible for NYSC, Law School. The Punch. https://punchng.com/noun-graduates-now-eligible-for-nysc-law-school/
Barrow, D. M. (2017). A phenomenological study of the lived experiences of parents of young children with autism receiving special education services (Doctoral dissertation). https://doi.org/10.15760/etd.5919
Biao, I. (2012). Open and distance learning: Achievements and challenges in a developing sub-educational sector in Africa. In P. B. Muyinda (Ed.), Distance education, (pp. 27–62). Intech Open.
Bušelić, M. (2012). Distance learning— concepts and contributions. Oeconomica Jadertina, 2(1), 23-34. https://doi.org/10.15291/oec.209
Commonwealth of Learning. (2001). Building capacity to deliver distance education in Nigeria’s federal university system (Report prepared for the World Bank). https://docplayer.net/4801440-Building-capacity-to-deliver-distance-education-in-nigeria-s-federal-university-system-report-prepared-for-the-world-bank.html
Duffy, T., Gilbert, I., Kennedy, D., & Kwong, P. W (2002). Comparing distance education and conventional education: Observations from a comparative study of post-registration nurses. Research in Learning Technology, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v10i1.11304
Ezekoka, G. K. (2015). Blended learning in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN): Prospects and constraints.
International Journal of Innovation and Research in Educational Sciences, 2(6), 457–461. https://www.ijires.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJIRES_457_Final.pdf
Federal Ministry of Education. (2000). Education today. Quarterly Journal of the Federal Ministry of Education, 8(3), 59–64.
Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2004). National policy on education (4th ed.). Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/AFR/Nigeria/TCH/National%20Policy%20on%20Education.pdf
Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2013). National policy on education (6th ed.). Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council. https://educatetolead.files.wordpress.com/2016/02/national-education-policy2013.pdf
Gaskell, A., & Mills, R. (2015). The quality and reputation of open, distance and e-learning: What are the challenges? Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 29(3), 190–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2014.993603
Ikegulu, B., & Oranusi, S. (2014). Distance and open learning in Nigeria: Progress, concerns and prospects. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(35), 167–171. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/234636688.pdf
Keegan, D. (1990). Foundations of distance education (2nd ed.) Routledge.
Keegan, D. (1996). Foundations of distance education (3rd ed.) Routledge.
López Soblechero, M. V., González Gaya, C., & Hernández Ramírez, J. J. (2014). A comparative study of classroom and online distance modes of official vocational education and training. PLoS ONE 9(5), e96052. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096052
Naido, P. (March 5, 2020). Nigeria tops South Africa as the continent’s biggest economy. Bloomberg. https://www.bloombergquint.com/business/nigeria-now-tops-south-africa-as-the-continent-s-biggest-economy
Obioha, M. F., & Ndidi, U. B. (2011). Administrative problems of open distance education in Nigeria. A case study of National Open University of Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 1(5), 89–97. https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/view/11766/11372
Okonkwo, C. A. (2012). Assessment of challenges in developing self-instructional course materials at the National Open University of Nigeria. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(2), 221–231. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v13i2.930
Olakulehin, F. K., & Panda, S. K. (2011). Private cost of education: A comparative study of distance and campus-based university students in Nigeria. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, (2), 1–12. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ954910.pdf
Olatunji, T. I., Otefisan, M. A., & Ajayi, F. O. (2017). Promoting adult education and lifelong learning in contemporary Nigeria through blended learning. Adult Education in Nigeria, 22(1), pp. 448-461. Ambik Press.
Omolewa, M., & Adekanmbi, G. (Eds.). (1994). University initiatives in adult education. Ibadan University Press.
Onwe, O. J. (2013). Policies and practice of open and distance learning models in the sub-Saharan African countries: A literature survey. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3(8), 122–135. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1086.5371&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Oyeleke, O., & Apena, T. T. (2018). Stakeholders’ perception on some selected critical issues in open and distance education in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Foundations and Development, 7, 234–243. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344197747_JOURNAL_OF_EDUCATIONAL_FOUNDATIONS_AND_DEVELOPMENT_2018_VOLUME_07
Paul, J., & Jefferson, F. (2019). A comparative analysis of student performance in an online vs. face-to-face environmental science course from 2009 to 2016. Frontiers in Computer Science. 1(7). https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomp.2019.00007
Terwase, I. T., Abdul-Talib, A., & Zengeni K. T., (2014). Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy: International business perspective. International Journal of Management Sciences, 3(7), 534–543. https://ideas.repec.org/a/rss/jnljms/v3i7p8.html
Trindade, A. R., Carmo, H., & Bidarra, J. (2000). Current developments and best practice in open and distance learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 1(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v1i1.7
Tucker, S. (2001). Distance education: Better, worse, or as good as traditional education? Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 4(4). https://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter44/tucker44.html
Yin, R. (2003). Application of case study research. Sage.
Zormanová, L. (2016). The comparison of distance learning between the Czech Republic and other European countries. International Journal of Research in E-learning, 2(1), 88–103. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335993205_The_Comparison_of_Distance_Learning_Between_the_Czech_Republic_and_Other_European_Countries
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. The copyright of all content published in IRRODL is retained by the authors.
This copyright agreement and use license ensures, among other things, that an article will be as widely distributed as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific and/or scholarly archive.
You are free to
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms below:
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.