E-Learning Challenges in Iran: A Research Synthesis


  • Hamed Abbasi Kasani Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3844-2974
  • Gholamreza Shams Mourkani Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and psychology, Shahid Beheshti University
  • Farhad Seraji Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1479-5919
  • Morteza Rezaeizadeh Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University
  • Hojjat Abedi Department of English language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Beheshti University




e-learning, challenge, Iran, research synthesis, model


This study investigates and fully identifies the challenges of the Iranian e-learning system. The approach was qualitative and the method was research synthesis. The statistical population consisted of studies from 2006 to 2019 in the field of challenges of the e-learning system of Iran collected with specific keywords from the country’s databases. A total of 48 studies were identified as relevant. They were screened in stages and evaluated based on their title, abstract, and content. The final 19 articles selected underwent content analysis, revealing that Iran’s e-learning system faces problems in eight dimensions: legal, human, educational, technological, sociocultural, support, economic, and managerial-organizational. The results of the analysis could serve as a model for countries with similar technology infrastructure and cultural features wishing to improve their e-learning systems.

Author Biographies

Hamed Abbasi Kasani, Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University

Hamed Abbasi Kasani is a PhD candidate in the field of information technology in higher education at Shahid Beheshti University. He received his master's degree in educational management in 2014 from Shahid Beheshti University. In 2015, he began to study as a PhD student in the first doctoral program in information technology in higher education. His areas of expertise and interests include information technology in education, e-learning, learning evaluation, and training courses.

Gholamreza Shams Mourkani, Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and psychology, Shahid Beheshti University

Gholamreza Shams Mourkani is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Educationand Psychology at Shahid Beheshti University in the field of educational management. He received his PhD in 2007 from Trabiat Modares University. His research interests are educational leadership and educational management.

Farhad Seraji, Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University

Farhad Seraji is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Literature and Humanities at Bu Ali Sina University of Hamadan in the field of curriculum studies. He received his PhD from Kharazmi University in 2008. E-learning and virtual education are the most important areas of his educational and research interests.

Morteza Rezaeizadeh, Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University

Morteza Rezaeizadeh is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Educationand Psychology at Shahid Beheshti University in the field of virtual education. He obtained his PhD in 2014 at Limerick University (Ireland). His most important educational and research interests include virtual education, e-learning, educational entrepreneurship.

Hojjat Abedi, Department of English language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Beheshti University

Hojjat Abedi is a PhD candidate of Teaching English as a Foreign Language at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. His main interests are language learning and e-learning. He has published a number of papers in System, IOJET, Education and Information Technologies, Interdisciplinary Journal of Virtual Learning in Medical Sciences.


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How to Cite

Abbasi Kasani, H., Shams Mourkani, G., Seraji, F., Rezaeizadeh, M., & Abedi, H. (2020). E-Learning Challenges in Iran: A Research Synthesis. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(4), 96–116. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v21i4.4677



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