Interaction and Immediacy in Online Learning


  • Robert H. Woods
  • Jason D. Baker



distance education, interpersonal interaction, immediacy, theory, theoretical framework


This article presents the concepts of interaction and immediacy and discusses their theoretical frameworks, implications, and relationship with one another. The authors propose the development of a new conceptual model and recommend additional antecedent research.

Author Biographies

Robert H. Woods

Dr Woods is an Assistant Professor of Communication at Spring Arbor University, Michigan, USA. Dr. Woods designs and teaches online courses and consults with other higher education institutions in the area of online program development and course delivery. Dr. Woods can be reached via email at:

Jason D. Baker

Dr. Baker is an Associate Professor of education and the advisor of the distance education cognate in the Doctor of Education program at Regent University. Dr. Baker's research interests include distance and online education, designing effective online learning environments, online communication, and instructional technology. For more information, Jason Baker's email address is:




How to Cite

Woods, R. H., & Baker, J. D. (2004). Interaction and Immediacy in Online Learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 5(2).



Research Articles