Understanding e-learning adoption in Brazil: Major determinants and gender effects


  • Shintaro Okazaki Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • Luiz Miguel Renda dos Santos Universidade Estácio de Sá, Brazil




BRIC, e-learning, Gender, technology acceptance model, Social interaction


The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1) ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2) perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3) intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.


Author Biography

Shintaro Okazaki, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Shintaro Okazaki received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) where he works as Associate Professor of Marketing in the College of Economics and Business Administration. His research focuses on mobile commerce, consumer generated media, and cross-cultural issues in marketing communications. His work has appeared in the Journal of Advertising, Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of International Marketing, Journal of Business Research, Journal of World Business, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Psychology & Marketing, European Journal of Marketing, International Marketing Review, Tourism Management, Information & Management, The Service Industries Journal, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Computers in Human Behavior, and Internet Research, among others. He serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Advertising (Associate Editor), Journal of Advertising Research, International Journal of Advertising, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing (Associate Editor), Electronic Markets (Associate Editor), Internet Research, and Journal of Marketing Communications (former Deputy Editor), among others. He is also on the Executive Board of the European Advertising Academy (EAA). He is a recipient of the 2008 Best Academic of the Year from the Mobile Marketing Association.



How to Cite

Okazaki, S., & Renda dos Santos, L. M. (2012). Understanding e-learning adoption in Brazil: Major determinants and gender effects. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 91–106. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v13i4.1266



Research Articles